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Jay Cross helps people work and live smarter. Jay is the Johnny Appleseed of informal learning. He wrote the book on it. He was the first person to use the term eLearning on the web. He has challenged conventional wisdom about how adults learn since designing the first business degree program offered by the University of Phoenix.

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How People Learn

using freesummarizer on these classics
Successful learning is often socially constructed and can require slight changes in one’s identity, which make the process both challenging and powerful.The motivation to learn is the desire to participate in a community of practice, to become and remain a member.

We perceive our identities in terms of our ability to contribute and to affect the life of communities in which we are or want to be a part.

Learning requires access and the opportunity to contribute.

We all learn what enables us to participate in the communities of practice of which we wish to be a part

People acquire the skills they use at work informally talking, observing others, trial-and-error, and simply working with people in the know.Formal training and workshops account for only 10% to 20% of what people learn at work.

Informal learning and formal learning are at opposite ends of the learning spectrum.

Informal learning is the unofficial, unscheduled, impromptu way most people learn to do their jobs.

All knowledge workers must master these skills in addition to learning how to learn.

Stress, unhappiness, and emotions also impact learning and deserve a spot on the learning agenda.

As the global economy shifts from factory work to service work, workers need the human, judgmental expertise and emotional intelligence that one doesn’t learn in class.

As work and learning become one, good learning and good work merge to become a single activity.

Formal learning takes place in classrooms; informal learning happens in workscapes.

A sorkcape is a learning ecology: learning without borders.

 
Social learning is not just the technology of social media, although it makes use of it.Social learning combines social media tools with a shift in the corporate culture, a shift that encourages ongoing knowledge transfer and connects people in ways that make learning a joy.

Social learning thrives in a culture of service and wonder.

Yet in most classrooms, young people are prevented from helping each other learn and succeed.

Part of why we are not better at helping one another learn and grow is that our attention is spread thin.

Social learning is accelerated when we give our attention to individuals, groups and projects that interest and energize us.

It’s the technology of social learning, and social media in general, that allows us to regulate our attention to those areas where we can gain the highest return on investment, and put our best contributions out into the world.

It’s the culture of social learning that helps identify how those contributions are important to us all.

A social learning culture requires design, training, guidance, leadership, monitoring and celebrating successes, large and small.

The technology and culture of social learning can create an environment where you are enthusiastically supported, where your sense of wonder returns and creativity blossoms where people thrive.

Learning needs and theories that describe learning principles and processes, should be reflective of underlying social environments.

Cindy Buell details this process: “In cognitive theories, knowledge is viewed as symbolic mental constructs in the learner’s mind, and the learning process is the means by which these symbolic representations are committed to memory.” Behaviorism and cognitivism view knowledge as external to the learner and the learning process as the act of internalizing knowledge.

Learning theories are concerned with the actual process of learning, not with the value of what is being learned.

Some questions to explore in relation to learning theories and the impact of technology and new sciences (chaos and networks) on learning: Including technology and connection making as learning activities begins to move learning theories into a digital age.

Learning, as a self-organizing process requires that the system (personal or organizational learning systems) be informationally open, that is, for it to be able to classify its own interaction with an environment, it must be able to change its structure

The capacity to form connections between sources of information, and thereby create useful information patterns, is required to learn in our knowledge economy.

Learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or a database), is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing.

The field of education has been slow to recognize both the impact of new learning tools and the environmental changes in what it means to learn.

 

Though the spirit of cognitive apprenticeship stems from Lave and Wenger’s work observing traditional apprenticeship practices, the CA framework extends beyond traditional apprenticeship in significant ways, primarily by being focused on the higher-order metacognitive skills and problem solving/task completion strategies employed by experts.

Many complex and important skills, such those required for language use and social interaction, are learned informally through apprenticeship-like methods (not involving didactic teaching): observation, coaching, and successive approximation. Apprenticeship embeds the learning of skills and knowledge in their social and functional context

Further, because expert practice in these domains rests crucially on the integration of cognitive and metacognitive processes, it can best be taught through methods that emphasize what Lave calls successive approximation of mature practice, methods that have traditionally been employed in apprenticeship to transmit complex physical processes and skills).

Moreover, few people learn to be active readers and listeners on their own, and that is where cognitive apprenticeship is critical observing the processes by which an expert listener or reader thinks and practicing these skills under the guidance of the expert can teach students to learn on their own more skillfully” (p.459).

The alternation between expert and student postmortem analyses enables the class to compare student problem-solving processes and strategies with those of the expert; such comparisons provide the basis for diagnosing student difficulties and for making incremental adjustments in student performance.

Moreover, generating abstracted replays involves focusing on the strategies as well as the tactical levels of problem solving: This aids students in developing a hierarchical model of the problem-solving process as the basis for self-monitoring and correction, and in seeing how to organize local (tactical) processes to accomplish high-level (strategic) goals.

Modeling involves an expert’s carrying out a task so that students can observe and build a conceptual model of the processes that are required to accomplish the task.

Reflection enables students to compare their own problem-solving processes with those of an expert, another student, and ultimately, an internal cognitive model of expertise.

Culture of expert practice experts must be able to identify and represent to students the cognitive processes they engage in as they solve problems.

Designing these learning environments may help us better understand the processes and knowledge that students require for expertise and that teacher require to effectively diagnose student difficulties, give useful hints, sequence learning activities, etc.

 

Though the spirit of cognitive apprenticeship stems from Lave and Wenger’s work observing traditional apprenticeship practices, the CA framework extends beyond traditional apprenticeship in significant ways, primarily by being focused on the higher-order metacognitive skills and problem solving/task completion strategies employed by experts.

Many complex and important skills, such those required for language use and social interaction, are learned informally through apprenticeship-like methods (not involving didactic teaching): observation, coaching, and successive approximation (p.453) “Apprenticeship embeds the learning of skills and knowledge in their social and functional context” (p.454).

Further, because expert practice in these domains rests crucially on the integration of cognitive and metacognitive processes, it can best be taught through methods that emphasize what Lave calls successive approximation of mature practice, methods that have traditionally been employed in apprenticeship to transmit complex physical processes and skills” (p.455).

Moreover, few people learn to be active readers and listeners on their own, and that is where cognitive apprenticeship is critical observing the processes by which an expert listener or reader thinks and practicing these skills under the guidance of the expert can teach students to learn on their own more skillfully” (p.459).

The alternation between expert and student postmortem analyses enables the class to compare student problem-solving processes and strategies with those of the expert; such comparisons provide the basis for diagnosing student difficulties and for making incremental adjustments in student performance.

Moreover, generating abstracted replays involves focusing on the strategies as well as the tactical levels of problem solving: This aids students in developing a hierarchical model of the problem-solving process as the basis for self-monitoring and correction, and in seeing how to organize local (tactical) processes to accomplish high-level (strategic) goals.

Modeling involves an expert’s carrying out a task so that students can observe and build a conceptual model of the processes that are required to accomplish the task.

Reflection enables students to compare their own problem-solving processes with those of an expert, another student, and ultimately, an internal cognitive model of expertise.

Culture of expert practice experts must be able to identify and represent to students the cognitive processes they engage in as they solve problems.

Designing these learning environments may help us better understand the processes and knowledge that students require for expertise and that teacher require to effectively diagnose student difficulties, give useful hints, sequence learning activities, etc.

in 5 sentences:
Social learning combines social media tools with a shift in the corporate culture, a shift that encourages ongoing knowledge transfer and connects people in ways that make learning a joy.

Learning theories are concerned with the actual process of learning, not with the value of what is being learned.

Some questions to explore in relation to learning theories and the impact of technology and new sciences (chaos and networks) on learning: Including technology and connection making as learning activities begins to move learning theories into a digital age.

Moreover, few people learn to be active readers and listeners on their own, and that is where cognitive apprenticeship is critical observing the processes by which an expert listener or reader thinks and practicing these skills under the guidance of the expert can teach students to learn on their own more skillfully” (p.459).

Designing these learning environments may help us better understand the processes and knowledge that students require for expertise and that teacher require to effectively diagnose student difficulties, give useful hints, sequence learning activities, etc.

in 1 sentence:
Some questions to explore in relation to learning theories and the impact of technology and new sciences (chaos and networks) on learning: Including technology and connection making as learning activities begins to move learning theories into a digital age.